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Senin, 24 Desember 2012

Belajar "MODALS"


SUMMARY CHART OF MODALS AND SIMILAR EXPRESSION
AUXILARY
USES
PRESENT/FUTURE
PAST


May
(1)    Polite request
May I borrow your pen?

(2)    Formal permission
You may leave the room

(3)    Less than 50% certainty
Where’s John ?
He may be at the library
He may have been at the library

Might
(1)    Less than  50% certainty
Where’s John ?
He might be at the library
He might have been at the library
(2)    Polite request (rare)
Might I borrow your pen?



Should
(1)    Advisability
I should study tonight
I should have studied last night
(2)    90% certainty
She should do well on the test.
(future only, not present)
She should have done well on the test


Ought to
(1)    Advisability
I ought to study tonight
I ought to have studied last night
(3)    90% certainty
She ought to do well on the test.
(future only, not present)
She ought to have done well on the test
Had better
(1)    Advisability with threat of bad result
You had better be on time, or we will leave without you
(past form uncommon)
be supposed to
(1)    Expectation
Class is supposed to begin at 10
Class was supposed to begin at 10
be to
(1)    Strong expectation
You are to be here at 9:00
You were to be here at 9:00



Must
(1)    Strong necessity
I must go to class today
I had to go to class yesterday
(2)    Prohibition (negative)
You must not open that door

(3)    95% certainty
Mary isn’t in class. She must be sick. (present only)
Mary must have been sick yesterday

Have to
(1)    necessity
I have to go to class today
I had  to go to class yesterday
(2)    lack of necessity
I don’t have to go to class today
I didn’t have to go to class yesterday
Have got to
(1)    necessity
I have got to go to class today
I had to go to class yesterday


Will


(1)    100% certainty
He will be here at 6:00. (future only)

(2)    Willingness
The phone’s ringing.
I’ll get it.

(3)    Polite request
Will  you please pass the salt?



be going to
(1)    100% certainty
He is going to be here at 6:00. (future only)

(2)    Definite plan
I’m going to paint my bedroom. (future only)
I was going to paint my room, but I didn’t have time



Can
(1)    Ability/possibility
I can run fast
I could run fast when I was a child, but now I can’t
(2)    Informal permission
You can use my car tomorrow

(3)    Informal polite request
Can I borrow your pen?

(4)    Impossibility
(negative only)
That can’t be true !
that can’t have been true !




Could
(1)    Past ability

I could run fast when I was a child
(2)    Polite request
Could you help me?

(3)    Suggestion
I need help in math
You could talk to your teacher
You could have talked to your teacher
(4)    Less than 50% certainty
Where’s John?
He could be at home
He could have been at home
(5)    Impossibility
(negative only)
That couldn’t be true !
That couldn’t have been true !
be able to
(1)    Ability
I am able to help you.
I will be able to help you.
I was able to help him




Would
(1)    Polite request
Would you please pass the salt?
Would you mind if I left early?

(2)    Preference
I would rather go to the park than stay home
I would rather have gone to the park
(3)    Repeated action in the past

When I was a child, I would visit my grandparents every weekend

Shall
(1)    Polite question to make a suggestion
Shall I open the window?

(2)    Future with “I” or “we” as subject
I shall arrive at nine.
(will = more common)






THE PASSIVE FROM OF MODALS AND SIMILAR EXPRESSIONS
THE PASSIVE FORM : modal + be + past participle
a)      Tom will be invited to the picnic
b)      The window can’t be opened
c)       Children should be taught to respect their elders
d)      May I be excused from class?
e)      This book had better be returned to the library before Friday
f)       This letter ought to be sent before June 1st
g)      Mary  has to be told about our change in plans
h)      Fred is supposed to be told about the meeting
THE PAST-PASSIVE FORM : modal + have been + pas participle
i)        The letter should have been sent last week
j)        This house must have been built over 200 years ago
k)      Jack ought to have been invited to the party

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